Skill learning concepts in Physical Education

first_imgThe quality of a performance is largely determined by how skilful the performer is.Different skills are needed to perform and participate in different sport activities. The individual becomes familiar with these skills by practising, which eventually leads to mastering the skill. Once the skills are mastered, they can be executed effectively, consistently and efficiently within a competitive game or activity.Therefore, we can define skill as the learnt ability to choose and perform consistently the right techniques (basic patterns of movements) at the right time with maximum certainty and efficiency.Types of skillThere are many different sports and an amazing variety of physical skills. Physical skills involve the movement of the body and are normally called motor skills.Motor skills take time to learn and are the result of a series of mental and physical processes developed through practice.Some motor skills involve movement of a large group of muscles. These are known as gross motor skills. Example: activities that use large blocks of muscle to produce powerful and skilful movement such as javelin throws.Other motor skills involve the movement of a small group of muscles. These are called fine motor skills. Example: the action of the wrist movement in a badminton shot. Gross and fine motor skills need to be repeated consistently for successful performance.Motor skills can be divided into open and closed types. The division between open and closed skills is based on the type of situation or environment in which the skills are used.Open skillsThese are performed in situations that continually change and the player has to keep adapting to the changes as they happen. Successful performance depends on the player’s ability to see what is going on, accurately interpret what is happening, anticipate and act in the right way at the right moment. Example: intercepting passes, moving into position to receive passes and saving a goal, etc.Closed skillsThese are performed in predictable and stable conditions. You have to try to produce the movement in the same way each time. Skills such as cartwheels in gymnastics and free shots in basketball are examples.Most motor skills in sports lie somewhere between open and closed and can be considered as being at either end of a continuous system or continuum. Between the two ends of the continuum are skills made up of both open and closed elements. A continuum is a line which allows for skills made up of open and closed elements to be shown.All skills need to be practised under conditions as close as possible to those that they are going to be performed in. Open skills need to be practised in situations that involve change. Closed skills need to be practised in exactly the same way each time – repetitively. Skills with open and closed elements need both types of practice.Phases of skill learningThe learning of skills goes through phases. The length of each will depend on the difficulty of the skill, level of ability and the amount of practice. The three distinct phases are the cognitive, the associative, and the autonomous.ï Cognitive phase – This is the beginner’s phase. The skill is new. Clear demonstrations, simple instructions and practice are needed. Emphasis must be on technique and not outcome. A lot of errors, jerky performance and inaccuracies will occur. However, praises for correct actions must be given.ï Associative phase – Techniques are learnt and the concentration is on practising the skill. Performance improves, fewer errors are made, and the individual begins to analyse movements and make corrections through internal (use of senses) and external (the coach) feedback.ï Autonomous phase – Expertise is developed and the skill is now performed automatically. The skill is now performed consistently, effectively and efficiently. More concentration is on decision making concerning strategies and tactics. Example: a tennis player concerned about where to play the best shot, rather than the shot itself.Knowing about the different phases helps coaches to plan training activities that match the development of each performer. It is important to learn the skill correctly as you move through the phases because bad habits in the cognitive or associative phases can be difficult to correct later.Next week: Factors affecting performance.last_img read more

Hubert Lawrence | Protecting the future

first_img FOCUS ON OTHER FACTORS With that debate done for the time being, perhaps the focus should turn to the other factors that influence Jamaica’s success in athletics. The US track scholarship has played a huge role in our nation’s advancement with many of our champions, from Herb McKenley to Veronica Campbell-Brown and Omar McLeod benefiting. Yet many good prospects have taken that route and disappeared. Eight of the boys and six of the girls who won Class One or open events at the ISSA GraceKennedy Boys and Girls Championships 2016 have gone off to scholarships in the US. Together, they won 17 individual events at Champs last year, and their departure is testimony to how valuable the US track and field scholarship still is. It’s probably time that the scholarship prospect be provided with more information on how to choose wisely. A central repository of information would really help to shed light on academic faculty and the athletic coaching staff and weather so the young ones could choose wisely. While some scholarship seekers might have been early bloomers athletically speaking, all including blue chip prospects would benefit from better information. Coach movement should be included because there are times when the student’s athlete finds that the coach who recruited them is long gone when they arrive in the US. By helping young prospects make better choices, this scholarship information centre would protect the promise of Jamaica’s future in track and field. Not everyone will be an Olympic champion, but all can seize the opportunities that do exist. Should it come to pass, It would be an important step forward. – Hubert Lawrence has made notes at track side since 1980. David Hunt, the editor and publisher of the popular Champs Preview, consistently urged the authorities to reduce load on student-athletes in track and field. He did so by showing the difference in Champs loading between those who fell by the wayside and those who became Olympic medallists. Accordingly, In 1992, he suggested that no athlete be allowed to do more than 3 events in total at Boys Champs with no more than 2 on the track. When ISSA cut the allowable load limit to 3 track events, he called it “a good start?”. He wrote, “No longer can top-class athletes be asked to do 6 events, plus relays, in an attempt to garner as many points as possible.” That was 23 years ago. Since then, Jamaica has won more medals at the Olympic Games and World Championships than it used to. The reduction of the load at Champs, improved coaching, injury management, and the emergence of stay-at-home post- high-school training programmes have probably all contributed to the success Jamaica enjoys today. David’s 1994 editorial has another striking passage. It reads, “The history of Boys’ Champs is replete with talented overburdened athletes, who failed to go on to further glory at the senior level. There may be other reasons for their failure, but the early abuse is a common factor.” This may be why there aren’t too many arguments voiced against the intent of the 2017 vote by ISSA to further restrict the range of events student-athletes can do at Champs. Most coaches simply wish they had more time to adjust their training programmes to the new regime. With Champs due on March 28, there’s no time to quarrel anymore.last_img read more

Guiao says playing at PH Arena ‘convenient’ but won’t regard venue as NLEX homecourt

first_imgOSG plea to revoke ABS-CBN franchise ’a duplicitous move’ – Lacson Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Luckily for Guiao, his players followed his instructions and played at their best, with the Road Warriors coming away with a 115-104 triumph over GlobalPort to go 2-0 in the 2018 PBA Philippine Cup.Despite the win, Guiao knows that majority of the fans who came to the venue are still cheering for one team only.“Once you enter the court, the fans inside are still rooting for Ginebra,” he said with a chuckle.ADVERTISEMENT It’s easy to see Guiao liking the location of the venue with his house being located at Angeles, Pampanga. But for the fiery mentor, the good things for him end at the moment the expressway diverts to Ciudad de Victoria here in Bocaue, Bulacan.“It’s just convenient for us because the roads are good and the travel is fast,” he said.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSTim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crownSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSAfter winning title, time for LA Tenorio to give back to Batangas folkThe magnitude of the place was one of the points of concern for Guiao coming to the Christmas Day game, knowing that the unfamiliarity of NLEX in the cavernous venue could come into play as they played here for the first time on Monday.“It’s so big. We haven’t practiced here so I told the players to come early for them to try to soak in the atmosphere and familiarize yourselves with the environment as much as possible. The feel is a huge thing because if you’re not comfortable with whatever it is, you may have a difficulty playing,” he said. Steam emission over Taal’s main crater ‘steady’ for past 24 hours View comments Jiro Manio arrested for stabbing man in Marikina Redemption is sweet for Ginebra, Scottie Thompson Brian Heruela arrival bolsters Phoenix backcourt, defense Fans fill up Philippine Arena for SEA Games opening PLAY LIST 01:02Fans fill up Philippine Arena for SEA Games opening00:50Trending Articles00:412 buses bound for SEA Games opening collide in Bulacan02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award OSG plea to revoke ABS-CBN franchise ’a duplicitous move’ – Lacson Scottie Thompson also worthy of Finals MVP, thinks Cone Photo by Tristan Tamayo/ INQUIRER.netBOCAUE — The Philippine Arena may be near to coach Yeng Guiao, but the NLEX coach doesn’t regard the world’s largest indoor arena as his team’s homecourt in any way.“We can say that NLEX is our homecourt. But the game isn’t played on the road but rather, inside the arena,” the Road Warriors mentor said in Filipino.ADVERTISEMENT Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Alyssa proud to see Kiefer thrive in PBA LATEST STORIES Meralco ‘never the same’ after Almazan injury in PBA Finals Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew MOST READlast_img read more

Fiba Asia Champions Cup: Bolts fall to Iran’s Petrochimi in semis

first_imgDon’t miss out on the latest news and information. Durham finished with 27 points and 11 rebounds while Diamond Stone added 15 points, five rebounds and three steals. Garvo Lanete and Mike Tolomia chipped in 12 and nine points, respectively.National team mainstay Behnam Yakhchali powered the Iranians with a game-high 29 points on top of eight rebounds.The Iranians will face either Alvark Tokyo or SK Knights for the gold.ADVERTISEMENT Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Photo from Fiba.comMeralco bowed to Petrochimi of Iran, 79-74, in the semifinals of the Fiba Asia Champions Cup Monday night at Studio 29 in Nonthaburi, Thailand.Despite getting booted out of gold medal contention, the undermanned Bolts, who were without Chris Newsome, Cliff Hodge, Jared Dillinger and Ranidel de Ocampo for the entirety of the club tournament.ADVERTISEMENT Rouhani: Iran ‘deeply sorry’ about downing of plane PLAY LIST 01:16Rouhani: Iran ‘deeply sorry’ about downing of plane00:58Iran civil aviation boss ‘certain’ Ukraine plane not hit by missile00:50Trending Articles02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Tim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crown PH dragon boat team seeks incentive after gold medal haul View comments Japeth Aguilar embraces role, gets rewarded with Finals MVP plum Gov’t to employ 6,000 displaced by Taal Nadine Lustre’s phone stolen in Brazil LATEST STORIES Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew MOST READ Gretchen Barretto’s daughter Dominique graduates magna cum laude from California college Allen Durham still determined to help Meralco win 1st PBA title Will you be the first P16 Billion Powerball jackpot winner from the Philippines? Newsome and Hodge, who are Filipino-Americans, failed to get clearance to play while Dillinger and De Ocampo are still out with injuries.Still, Meralco made a good account of itself after recovering from a couple of losses to start the tournament and crashing the semifinals following a 33-point ripping of defending champion Al Riyadi of Lebanon.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSJapeth Aguilar wins 1st PBA Finals MVP award for GinebraSPORTSGolden State Warriors sign Lee to multiyear contract, bring back ChrissWith Allen Durham leading the way, the Bolts put up quite a fight against Petrochimi, which needed two free throws from Farid Aslani Haji Abadi with 22 seconds left to clinch the game.Baser Amer made a layup to put the Bolts within a possession, 77-74, with 24 ticks to go.last_img read more

Locals bailed out in SPCA Rescue Me event

first_imgThe North Peace SPCA held an open house on Saturday and part of the event included their Rescue Me Challenge where supporters of the organization locked themselves in with a dog or cat until $200 was raised for them to bail them out. The Rescue Me Challenge was a component of the month long Community Challenge the North Peace SPCA has with the South Peace SPCA to see who can raise more money over the month of May.Branch manager Candace Buchamer said the money brought in over the month will go towards helping the well being of the animals in a number of ways.“The money that’s raised during the Community Challenge goes towards general operating fees,” she said. “It helps keeps our doors open. It helps us with medical costs for the animals whether it’s spay, neuter or vaccination.”- Advertisement -There are also raffle tickets available to help with the Community Challenge. You can purchase one for $10, or three for $25. There’s an early bird draw on May 31st for a 12 yard load of top soil donated by WL Construction. The final draw prizes will be drawn on June 30. Other prizes include a custom firepit, a CrossFit 187 training session, and a women’s three piece suitcase set.The fundraising goal for the Community Challenge is $35,000, which equates to roughly a fifth of the organization’s operating costs. The North Peace SPCA has approximately $10,000 towards the goal. The event began on May 1 and will run through May 31.Anyone wanting to purchase a raffle ticket, or donate towards the goal can do so by calling 250-785-7722, or by sending an email to northpeace@spca.bc.ca.Advertisementlast_img read more

Actors unions, advertisers seek study on pay

first_img“They are not telling us what to do, they are just giving us models,” Wood said. “These consultants need to have true independence and be credible to both sides so there is reason to take their recommendation seriously.” With the current contract expiring Oct. 29 and the requests for proposals just going out now, Wood said he expects both sides to discuss an extension in order to have time for the study to be completed and digested. “It’s one step at a time,” he said. “The important thing is we are having a productive dialogue with the unions and I’m optimistic.” greg.hernandez@dailynews.com (818) 713-3758160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! With just over five months left before the expiration of the current labor contract for commercial performers, negotiators for the acting unions and the advertising industry have agreed to seek proposals for a joint study to identify alternate models for compensation in the age of emerging new media. The Screen Actors Guild, the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists and the advertising industry’s Joint Policy Committee on Broadcast Talent Union Relations announced Wednesday that they have invited nine consultants from both industry and academia to submit proposals for a study which, if chosen, would be used for consideration during the bargaining process. Both sides are seeking to avoid a repeat of 2000 when commercial actors were locked in a six-month-long strike, one of the longest walkouts in entertainment industry history. They finally agreed to a three-year contract in Oct. 2003 that included increases in wages and in health plan and pension contributions. “We are doing something that is pretty unprecedented in labor,” said Doug Wood, JPC lead negotiator. “In general, we’d like their proposals for models on how to create a new system to fairly compensate actors and allow advertisers the creative freedom they need an ever-diffused audience in an ever-increasing array of media choices.” AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREBasketball roundup: Sierra Canyon, Birmingham set to face off in tournament quarterfinalsSAG spokesman Seth Oster said that while a study has not yet been selected, the union is hopeful one can be agreed upon. “We are proceeding in our joint effort to find a qualified consultant to conduct the study that is especially important to both sides,” Oster said. “The landscape of the advertising industry, like that of the entire entertainment industry, has changed dramatically and we think it’s in our best interests to have an objective third party expert give us insight into how these changes are affecting actors in order to ensure that we can best protect our members and their interests as we renegotiate this critical.” AFTRA National Assistant Executive Director Mathis Dunn, the union’s chief negotiator for the commercials contract, reflected Wednesday that “in their initial day, radio and television were new technologies. AFTRA then worked with the advertising industry to establish a fair method of compensating performers.” Dunn said the study “is a step to help us determine what changes, if any, could be made to continue fair compensation to performers.” Wood agreed the study seems necessary because of changes in advertising, particularly in connection to the Internet, which is likely to make negotiations more complex. last_img read more

Tottenham and Man United target Cengiz Under being chased by ‘several clubs’

first_img1 In-demand Ba?ak?ehir starlet Cengiz Under Basaksehir vice-president Mustafa Saral has admitted Tottenham and Manchester United target Cengiz Under is the subject of interest from a number of clubs.The highly-rated 19-year-old has enjoyed a meteoric rise from the second tier in Turkey to a brilliant breakthrough season in the top flight and he is now considered one of the best young talents in Europe.Saral is insistent, however, that the youngster should remain at Basaksehir for one more season to continue his development, in spite of the high level of interest in him.Alongside Manchester United and Tottenham, Ligue 1 side Lille have also made inquiries but Saral is hopeful of keeping Under at the club beyond this summer.“Several clubs have been scouting Cengiz,” Saral was quoted as saying by Turkish-Football.“Lille have held direct talks with us, we have held talks with a few teams that have been mentioned.“Our response has been the same, it is an honour to receive so much interest but we feel it is in his best interests to spend one more season here and then leave.“We will see what happens.”last_img read more

NEW CLUB IS THE ‘TOAST’ OF DONEGAL

first_imgLet us raise a toast! Seated from left are Emma Rose Callaghan (Vice President Public Relations), Niamh Lynch (President) Michelle Tourish, Aoife Dowds (Vice President Membership). Standing from left are Harry Murphy and Sean Harkin.Are you aged between 13 and 18 and lacking confidence and communication skills?You are certainly not alone but now a new group is here to put all those problems behind you.Formed just four months ago, the Junior Toastmasters Letterkenny already has 25 members and growing. The aim of the club is to help young people build confidence in speaking in front of crowds and to develop their public speaking skills.One of the co-founders says the club is the first club of its kind in the country and want to spread the word and increase the membership.The club’s fourth meeting will take place on this Sunday, the 17th of February at 5pm in the Mount Errigal Hotel and all young people aged between 13 and 18 are welcome to come along.Don’t worry, you won’t be asked to speak but fun is guaranteed. NEW CLUB IS THE ‘TOAST’ OF DONEGAL was last modified: February 14th, 2013 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Junior Toastmasters Letterkennylast_img read more

INISHOWEN FOOTBALL LEAGUE: CARN BEAT MOVILLE TO LIFT THE ULSTER JUNIOR CUP

first_imgCHAMPIONS: Carn with the Ulster Junior CupUlster Junior Cup Final – Maginn Park – www.inishowenfl.ieSuperb Doherty strike earns Carn first ever Junior CupCarn FC 2-0 Moville Celtic Played in showery conditions in Maginn Park before a big crowd on Sunday evening the opening half was a tense affair played at a high tempo.Carn made the early running forcing a corner and then seeing Declan McGonagle race into the area and go down under a challenge but referee Harvey was perfectly positioned to wave the appeals away.On 7 minutes Moville created a good chance when Shane Canning fed Raymond Campbell on the left and his low cross fell just behind the in-rushing Nigel McMonagle.On 16 minutes Sean Doherty fired just over from twenty yards before the same player released Joe Doherty who fed McMonagle inside but his effort sliced away to the right. Joe Doherty then fired a free kick from the edge of the area well over.Moville had the most of the possession but were finding the Carn defence hard nuts to crack.Carn started the second period the better with a Danaiel McLaughlin cross finding the unmarked Michael Byrne but his header was saved by Sean McGuinness.A Byrne corner then found Gerard McEleney whose reaction header drifted just past the angle.On 69 minutes they opened the scoring after Matthew Byrne fed Daniel McLaughlin on the left and he stepped inside a defender to advance before slipping the ball into Shane Doherty who fired a superb left footed effort to the roof of the net from fifteen yards. Moville pressed hard then with Shane Cannign well wide with a long range effort before a Mark Henry cross glanced off Carn defender Kevin Hirrell and over the bar.From the corner both substitie PJ Barr and Eamon Reddin had successive efforts blocked and cleared.Henry’s looping cross then found another substitute Ryan McClenaghan but he headed well wide.Moville’s best chance came on 81 minutes when McClenaghan fed Joe Doherty whose neat flick sent substitute Tony Boyce clear but Gerard Crossan advanced to spread himself and block superbly. Minutes later it was all over when McLaughlin again advanced on the left and crossed for Cathal Doherty to sweep the ball home from six yards.Moville pressed to the end but again the Carn defence stood up to the challenge.INISHOWEN FOOTBALL LEAGUE: CARN BEAT MOVILLE TO LIFT THE ULSTER JUNIOR CUP was last modified: April 28th, 2013 by BrendaShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:CarndonaghINISHOWEN FOOTBALL LEAGUE: CARN BEAT MOVILLE TO LIFT THE ULSTER JUNIOR CUPmovillelast_img read more

DONEGAL MUM PLEADS WITH FANS TO HELP HER SON WALK

first_imgA Donegal mum is hoping fans attending this Sunday’s GAA All-Ireland semi-final clash between Donegal and Dublin will help her kick start a fund raising campaign that will help her son to walk again.Anne Marie Doherty and her son PaulThe ‘Mammy I Want To Walk’ drive is all about raising funds for five-year-old Paul Doherty from Gleneely just outside Killygordon.There is no assistance available at home as the HSE can’t fund the operation so the family has to seek help in the USA. The brave you lad, starts school tomorrow (Friday) has spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy and to date has had physio, occupational therapy, speech therapy, conductive education, Botox injections, three weeks at the Peto Institute in Hungary and all sorts of medicines medicines but to no avail.“Since Paul could talk he always told me: “Mammy, I want to walk,” said heartbroken mum, Anne Marie.“It broke my heart to see him stuck in a wheelchair not been able to run about with his brother and sister or even to be able to pick up a toy from the floor that he wanted to play with.“Paul is a happy, playful and full of devilment ! As his mother, I always fought to get him the services and therapies he needed. While the HSE gave Paul what they could they could never offer him the opportunity to be able to walk. Then Anne Marie discovered what could be the start of a way to help Paul recover.“I came across an operation in America called Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy (SDR). The operation involves cutting some of the nerves in Paul’s spinal cord that are misfiring the muscles in his leg. Paul has been assessed for this operation and has been accepted. The neurosurgeon, Dr. Park, in St. Louis Hospital, Missouri, USA expects Paul will be able to walk with the aid of crutches/walker if he gets the operation.“This operation has been a successful part of cerebral palsy treatment in the USA for years. The NHS in the UK has just recently decided to trial the operation for 120 children there. By the time the operation is available in Ireland it will be too late for Paul. We need to raise a minimum of €60,000 for Paul’s dream of walking to be a reality. This would cover the cost of the operation and the first 4-6 months of a two year physio programme which all has to be funded by us privately as there is no HSE funding available for such an intense programme.She hopes the supporters at Sunday’s match can play their part in Paul’s bid to recover.“We will be in Dublin on Sunday for the Donegal – Dublin game with our buckets collecting for Paul’s operation. We will be wearing funny hats with wee “legs” around our necks and high vis vests. Please can you help us by donating or whatever you else you think would be beneficial to our cause. We would be very grateful in whatever you can do.” She added they were setting up a Facebook page with details of how people can donate to the ‘Mammy I Want To Walk’ fund in the next few days. But in the meantime Anne Marie is asking all the people going to Dublin to be aware of our cause and give what they can.“If they haven’t got a ticket people can donate at any Ulster Bank. Sort code 98 52 52. Account 10633243The capacity of Croke Park is 82,300. If each person gave an average of just 1 euro, Paul could have his operation and entire post op physio programme!” she added.DONEGAL MUM PLEADS WITH FANS TO HELP HER SON WALK was last modified: August 28th, 2014 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:Anne Marie Dohertydonegaldublinfanspaul dohertyWALKlast_img read more