BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS Now, you must determine the frequency, circumstances and consequences of the behaviour to be altered or implemented. If the desired outcome is to consume less fat, you must first find out what foods in your diet are high in fat, when you eat them and when you don’t eat them – all part of the preparation stage. Knowing when you don’t eat those, points to circumstances under which you exert control of your diet and will help as you set goals. POSITIVE OUTLOOK Having a positive outlook means taking an optimistic approach from the beginning and believing in yourself and working towards change, and remaining enthused about your progress. Also you may become motivated by looking at the outcome – how much healthier you will be, how much better you will look, or how far you will be able to jog. This week’s article is a follow-up to last week’s article ‘Process to Healthy Behaviour’ Using the same plan for every individual who wishes to change a behaviour will not work. The same prescription would not provide optimal results for a person who has been inactive for 20 years compared with one who walks regularly three times each week. This principle also holds true for people who are attempting to change behaviours. People respond more effectively to a process according to the stage of change they have reached, thus, applying any process at each stage of change enhances the likelihood of changing the behaviour permanently. The following description of the most common processes of change will help to develop a personal plan for change. SOCIAL LIBERATION This stresses external alternatives that make you aware of problem behaviours and contemplate change. Examples of social liberations include non-smoking areas, health-oriented cafeterias and restaurants, advocacy groups’ civic organisations, policy interventions, and self-help groups. Social liberation provide opportunities to get involved, stir up emotions and enhance self-esteem, thus helping you to gain confidence in your ability to change. SELF-ANALYSIS This is the decisive desire to modify the behaviour. If there is no interest in changing the behaviour, you won’t do it. You will remain a pre-contemplator or contemplator. A person who has no intention of quitting smoking will not quit, regardless of what anyone may say or how strong the evidence in favour of quitting. Therefore, in self-analysis you may want to prepare a list of reasons for continuing or discontinuing the behaviour. When the reasons for changing outweigh the reasons for not changing, you are ready for the contemplation or preparation stage. EMOTIONAL AROUSAL This process involves deep emotional experiences. Watching a loved one die of lung cancer caused by cigarette smoking may be all that is needed to make a person quit smoking. Other examples are dramatisation of the consequences of drug use and abuse, a film about open-heart surgery, or books illustrating damage to body systems as a result of unhealthy behaviours. COMMITMENT Upon making a decision to change, you now accept the responsibility to change and believe in your ability to do so – you have begun the preparation stage. Now, you must draw up a specific plan of action, write down your goals and share them with others. In essence, you are signing a behavioural contract for change. You would be more likely to adhere to your programme if others know you are committed to change. CONSCIOUSNESS-RAISING This is the first step in the programme. It involves obtaining information about the programme so you can make a better decision about the problem behaviour. For example, the problem could be physical inactivity. Learning about the benefits of exercise can help you to decide the type of fitness programme to pursue. This is part of the precontemplation stage. GOAL-SETTING Goals motivate change in behaviour. The stronger the goal or desire, the more motivated you will be either to change the unwanted behaviour or to implement new, healthy behaviours. Write down your goals and prepare an action plan to achieve those goals. This will help with modifying the behaviour. (This topic will continue next week).
MESMERIZE MESMERIZE MESMERIZE POPPY’S PRIDETWILIGHT ROCKET TWILIGHT ROCKET TWILIGHT ROCKET TWILIGHT ROCKETSUPERIOR QUALITY RUM PUNCH SUPERIOR QUALITY SUPERIOR QUALITY#JESSE’S FAVORITE YOGA DOOLAHIN DOOLAHINCOUNTRY TRAIN COUNTRY TRAIN #COUNTRY TRAIN #COUNTRY TRAINSERIOUS BUSINESS #I’M ALLWRIGHT SERIOUS BUSINESS I’M ALLWRIGHT#BASIC INSTINCT THE BEST FLYER THE BEST FLYER #THE BEST FLYERAUNT HILDA DAGGA DAGGA LINKS LOVETTA JONES LOVETTA JONESBARS OF GOLD BARS OF GOLD BARS OF GOLD BARS OF GOLDTARANIS #BONGO KING #TARANIS ROAD WI SEH#MESMERIZE #MESMERIZE MESMERIZE #MESMERIZETWILIGHT ROCKET TWILIGHT ROCKET GIRSHOM #TWILIGHT ROCKETMISS JUANITA SUPERIOR QUALITY MISS JUANITA MISS JUANITAJESSE’S FAVORITE DOOLAHIN #BIMINI YOGAUNBREAKABLE COUNTRY TRAIN #COUNTRY TRAIN COUNTRY TRAINSERIOUS BUSINESS SERIOUS BUSINESS SINK THE BISMARCK SERIOUS BUSINESSBASIC INSTINCT #THE BEST FLYER THE BEST FLYER TURBO MACHINEDAGGA DAGGA LINKS SMOKIN MAN AUNT HILDA LOVETTA JONESISRAELITE BARS OF GOLD BARS OF GOLD GEISHA’S GLORY#BONGO KING ROAD WI SEH ROAD WI SEH TARANISMESMERIZE POPPY’S PRIDE MESMERIZE MESMERIZETWILIGHT ROCKET GIRSHOM #TWILIGHT ROCKET TWILIGHT ROCKET#LADY SHANKARI SUPERIOR QUALITY #SUPERIOR QUALITY SUPERIOR QUALITYYOGA YOGA YOGA DOOLAHINCOUNTRY TRAIN COUNTRY TRAIN ROCK UNION ROCK UNIONCAUSE FOR CONCERN #CAUSE FOR CONCERN SERIOUS BUSINESS #RULES OF THE CAT#ONEFINEAFTERNOON THE BEST FLYER BASIC INSTINCT THE BEST FLYERDAGGA DAGGA LINKS SMOKIN MAN DAGGA DAGGA LINKS SMOKIN MANGEISHA’S GLORY BARS OF GOLD BARS OF GOLD BARS OF GOLDTARANIS TARANIS ROAD WI SEH #TARANIS#MESMERIZE POPPY’S PRIDESMART TRAIN #TWILIGHT ROCKET#SUPERIOR QUALITY SUPERIOR QUALITYJESSE’S FAVORITE YOGACOUNTRY TRAIN COUNTRY TRAINCAUSE FOR CONCERN CAUSE FOR CONCERNBASIC INSTINCT THE BEST FLYERAUNT HILDA #AUNT HILDABARS OF GOLD GEISHA’S GLORYTARANIS TARANIS
Former West Indies Under-19 captain, off-spinner Ramaal Lewis, will take no further part in the fifth and penultimate Jamaica Scorpions WICB Professional League trial match currently taking place at Sabina Park. The 19-year-old, who made his first-class debut last season, will miss today’s third and final day of the three-day encounter after dislocating his shoulder. The injury occurred as he attempted field a ball at full stretch in the covers while representing John Campbell’s XI against Paul Palmer’s XI. “Lewis will not take nay further part in the match,” explained Scorpions coach, Junior Bennett. “He dived full stretch to save a ball at cover, and dislocated his shoulder. We took him to the doctor, and they slipped it back in and he is now recuperating.” Bennett, who revealed that he was the person who took Lewis to the doctor, also expressed pleasure that the injury was not more serious. “We are quite pleased that the injury is not as serious as it could have been, and we look forward to him returning to action soon, ” he said. Meanwhile, the batsmen continued to show their worth in the match-up with Palmer’s XI closing on 223 for five in reply to Campbell’s XI 363 earlier in the day. Experienced batsman Tamar Lambert scored 74 for Palmer’s XI with the skipper getting 45. All-rounder Rovman Powell, 36, was also got among the runs. Veteran spinner Nikita Miller took two for 21. Earlier, batsman Andre McCarthy, who resumed the day unbeaten on 159 finished on 163 not out as Campbell’s XI, resuming on 346 for nine, were all out for 363.
ZURICH (AP):Sepp Blatter’s authorisation of a payment to fellow FIFA executive Michel Platini without a written contract was a “classic conflict of interest”, FIFA’s financial compliance head told The Associated Press yesterday.Audit and compliance committee chairman Domenico Scala said that FIFA president Blatter could be culpable of “falsification” of accounts over the 2011 payment of 2 million Swiss francs (about US$2 million) to Platini.Platini, the president of UEFA, said the money was owed from his job as an adviser to Blatter between 1998 and 2002, but there was only a verbal agreement for the debt.”Both parties, the president and Mr Platini, should have recused from their positions because both are members of the executive committee of FIFA and they both have a conflict of interest,” Scala told The AP in the first public comments on the case by a FIFA insider other than Blatter and Platini.”Mr Platini has asked the president to pay him a prescribed amount, which he should not have asked, which is why it is a classic conflict of interest.”Currently suspendedBoth Blatter and Platini are serving 90-day provisional suspensions, while FIFA’s ethics committee completes a full investigation into the actions of two of the most powerful officials in world sport.The case could end Platini’s hopes of succeeding Blatter as FIFA leader in an election set for February, although both men deny wrongdoing and are appealing against their suspensions.Scala is also head of the ad hoc election committee, which rules on the eligibility of presidential candidates, but he has no say in the ethics case.Blatter last week said he had a “gentleman’s agreement” with Platini over the payment.”If it is true what they are saying – that they had an oral agreement at the time they made the written contract to defer the payment – that payment should have been recorded in the accounts in 2002 and subsequent years,” Scala said. “It has not. If you approve as a member of a supervisory board financial accounts which you know that 2 million are not accrued, you have possibly done a falsification of a document.”
Having secured two new, glistening post-season accolades, Jamaican speedster Usain Bolt says he is fully focused on ending next season like the last: on top. Bolt, like he did in 2008, 2009, and 2012, followed up another triple gold-medal-winning season by topping tennis star Novak Djokovic for his record fourth Champion of Champions award, handed out by French media outlet L’Equipe. The sprinter was also named the Male Athlete of the Year by the International Sports Press Association (AIPS) Americas (a grouping of Latin American-based sports journalists). This follows the 29-year-old receiving the top award from the Caribbean Sports Journalists’ Association. Bolt successfully defended his 100m, 200m, and 4x100m titles at the IAAF World Championships in Beijing, China, in August. “I am always happy when my hard work is recognised, and so I am pleased to have received these awards. It’s also pleasing to have come out on top over so many other global sporting superstars,” said Bolt, who bettered the likes of Lionel Messi, Steph Curry, and Lewis Hamilton, among others for the L’Equipe award. SERENA WILLIAMS American tennis star Serena Williams won the female Champion of Champions award, while Cuban pole vaulter Yarisley Silva Rodriguez was the AIPS’ Americas Female Athlete of the Year. “I want to thank the organisations for this honour and all the fans for continuing to support me,” Bolt told The Gleaner before going on to underline his ambitions heading into the next season, when he will look to defend his Olympic sprint titles. “Last year was a good year for me, and I am thankful for what I was able to accomplish. However, I am working hard to achieve my goals for the coming season,” said Bolt. “The 2016 Olympic Games represent a major point in my career and ambitions, and I am putting in the work to ensure I will be in top shape in Rio.” Bolt, a six-time Olympic and 11-times World Championships gold medal winner and world record holder in the 100m, 200m, and 4x100m, has so far confirmed one appearance in 2016, the Anniversary Games in London, which takes place a couple weeks before the start of the Olympics in Rio de Janeiro. The five-time National Sportsman of the Year, has also won the Laureus World Sportsman of the Year award (2009, 2010, 2012); the IAAF World Athlete of the Year (2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013); the BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year (2008, 2009, 2012); and the Jamaica Gleaner Man of the Year award (2008 and 2009).
The quality of a performance is largely determined by how skilful the performer is.Different skills are needed to perform and participate in different sport activities. The individual becomes familiar with these skills by practising, which eventually leads to mastering the skill. Once the skills are mastered, they can be executed effectively, consistently and efficiently within a competitive game or activity.Therefore, we can define skill as the learnt ability to choose and perform consistently the right techniques (basic patterns of movements) at the right time with maximum certainty and efficiency.Types of skillThere are many different sports and an amazing variety of physical skills. Physical skills involve the movement of the body and are normally called motor skills.Motor skills take time to learn and are the result of a series of mental and physical processes developed through practice.Some motor skills involve movement of a large group of muscles. These are known as gross motor skills. Example: activities that use large blocks of muscle to produce powerful and skilful movement such as javelin throws.Other motor skills involve the movement of a small group of muscles. These are called fine motor skills. Example: the action of the wrist movement in a badminton shot. Gross and fine motor skills need to be repeated consistently for successful performance.Motor skills can be divided into open and closed types. The division between open and closed skills is based on the type of situation or environment in which the skills are used.Open skillsThese are performed in situations that continually change and the player has to keep adapting to the changes as they happen. Successful performance depends on the player’s ability to see what is going on, accurately interpret what is happening, anticipate and act in the right way at the right moment. Example: intercepting passes, moving into position to receive passes and saving a goal, etc.Closed skillsThese are performed in predictable and stable conditions. You have to try to produce the movement in the same way each time. Skills such as cartwheels in gymnastics and free shots in basketball are examples.Most motor skills in sports lie somewhere between open and closed and can be considered as being at either end of a continuous system or continuum. Between the two ends of the continuum are skills made up of both open and closed elements. A continuum is a line which allows for skills made up of open and closed elements to be shown.All skills need to be practised under conditions as close as possible to those that they are going to be performed in. Open skills need to be practised in situations that involve change. Closed skills need to be practised in exactly the same way each time – repetitively. Skills with open and closed elements need both types of practice.Phases of skill learningThe learning of skills goes through phases. The length of each will depend on the difficulty of the skill, level of ability and the amount of practice. The three distinct phases are the cognitive, the associative, and the autonomous.ï Cognitive phase – This is the beginner’s phase. The skill is new. Clear demonstrations, simple instructions and practice are needed. Emphasis must be on technique and not outcome. A lot of errors, jerky performance and inaccuracies will occur. However, praises for correct actions must be given.ï Associative phase – Techniques are learnt and the concentration is on practising the skill. Performance improves, fewer errors are made, and the individual begins to analyse movements and make corrections through internal (use of senses) and external (the coach) feedback.ï Autonomous phase – Expertise is developed and the skill is now performed automatically. The skill is now performed consistently, effectively and efficiently. More concentration is on decision making concerning strategies and tactics. Example: a tennis player concerned about where to play the best shot, rather than the shot itself.Knowing about the different phases helps coaches to plan training activities that match the development of each performer. It is important to learn the skill correctly as you move through the phases because bad habits in the cognitive or associative phases can be difficult to correct later.Next week: Factors affecting performance.
NEW DELHI (AP):Opener Hashim Amla struck an unbeaten 56 for South Africa in their eight-wicket win over Sri Lanka in the last World Twenty20 Group One game yesterday.Amla hit five fours and one six off 52 balls as South Africa scored 122-2 in 17.4 overs after winning the toss and dismissing Sri Lanka for 120 in 19.3 overs.Amla added 60 for the second wicket with captain Faf du Plessis (31) to help South Africa control the chase from early on.South Africa finished third in the group behind first-place West Indies and England, who were already through to the semi-finals. Defending champions Sri Lanka finished the tournament with a solitary win over Afghanistan.South Africa had little problem in chasing the moderate total as Amla struck a fifth half-century and called the shots in the company of his captain.Du Plessis scored three fours in his 36 balls, but was trapped leg before wicket by pace bowler Suranga Lakmal when he was batting fluently.In a game lacking lots of big shots, the crowd of more than 10,000 saw A.B. de Villiers strike two sixes, including the winning smash over midwicket off Lakmal’s full toss.’BATTING LET US DOWN'”It’s always tough when you are playing South Africa,” said Sri Lanka’s stand-in skipper Dinesh Chandimal. “Batting has let us down in this tournament.”Earlier, Kyle Abbott, Farhaan Behardien and Aaron Phangiso grabbed two wickets to restrict Sri Lanka.Left-arm spinner Phangiso produced a twin-strike in the fifth over after which Sri Lanka failed to get partnerships going.Opener Tillkaratne Dilshan, who had smashed an unbeaten 83 in Sri Lanka’s win against Afghanistan, scored 36 off 40 with four fours and one six. He added 45 runs for the first wicket with Chandimal, who led the side after Angelo Mathews pulled out due to a hamstring injury suffered during his fighting knock of 73 not out against England.Chandimal was bowled with a straighter delivery from Phangiso for 21 and left-hander Lahiru Thirimanne was bowled first ball with one that came in sharply.Behardien then dismissed Shehan Jayasuriya (1) and Dilshan, while Abbott came on to take two late wickets and ensure there was no fightback from the tail-enders.”It was a great pitch, the ball was stopping and turning,” said Man-of-the-Match Phangiso. “It’s been a bit tough. We prepared well coming from home and I think we just needed luck on our side.”- AP
Undefeated junior 400-metre hurdler Shannon Kalawan is taking her breakthrough season one day at a time, according to Edwin Allen Comprehensive High hurdles coach Kirk Douglas.In the weeks to come, Douglas will be helping Kalawan to improve, with the World Junior Championships her main target. Success at those meets would add to the ISSA Boys and Girls’ Championships and Carifta gold medals she has already collected.Asked to explain her progress from a personal best of 58.93 seconds to her Carifta Games winning time of 56.29, Douglas said: “I don’t think she has run a clean race yet, which we will work on at least for the World Juniors, hopefully.”Injury interrupted progressIn an exclusive interview, he noted that an injury interrupted her progress after she had been the runner-up at Champs 2014.”Last year, she started well, but she got hurt, and that’s what people don’t remember,” he recalled.A string of lifetime-best clockings – from 57.20 at Central Championships to 56.80 at Carifta Trials, to 56.41 at Champs – had observers wondering if Kalawan could also qualify for the Jamaican Olympic team.Douglas, once a star hurdler and coach at Kingston College, isn’t counting that out. “I don’t put it out of reach but we’re just going to take it one day at a time,” he said. “We have to look at these three weeks to Penns and then a six-week programme to the Junior Trials.”Kalawan is only 0.09 from the Olympic qualifying standard of 56.20 seconds.”Of course,” he concluded on the matter of the Olympics, “the thing there is two weeks later, so she can race again at the Senior Trials.”The National Junior Championships is set for June 18 and 19, with the four-day National Seniors starting on June 30.It’s a fair bet that the 18-year-old Edwin Allen student athlete will improve in alternating lead legs by then.”We’ve been working on using the ‘weak’ lead leg, if you can call it that,” he related. “So if you notice, she doesn’t really panic.”Kalawan has taken her new found success in her stride and according to Douglas, “has been a dream to coach all season just because of her attitude”.She is the latest in a long line of successful 400-metre hurdlers nurtured by head coach Michael Dyke and directed by Douglas.During his 13-year tenure as hurdles coach at Edwin Allen, the school has taken the Champs gold medal seven times through Sherene Pinnock, Nikita and Ristananna Tracey, Camira Haughton, and Kalawan. Pinnock, a two-time World Junior bronze medal winner, and Andrea Sutherland in 2006, and Nikita and Ristananna in 2009 and 2010, gave Dyke’s team one-two finishes at Champs.Ristananna has the Champs record at 55.81 seconds.
Jamaica’s head coach of the senior netball team, Minneth Reynolds, says that the Netball World Series against New Zealand served as a learning process. Jamaica’s Sunshine Girls were swept by New Zealand’s’ Silver Ferns in the three-Test series in New Zealand that concluded on Sunday. New Zealand won the Taini Jamison Trophy with wins against Jamaica on September 11 by 72-34 at the Trafalgar Centre in Nelson; on September 14 by 38-61 at Central Energy Trust Arena, Palmerston North; and on September 17 by 66-38 at the Energy Events Centre in Rotorua. “It was a good learning experience for the ladies as it is the start of a rebuilding process,” Reynolds told The Gleaner on arrival at the Norman Manley International Airport in Kingston yesterday. “We are looking forward to improve as the gap is a lot wider, so it will take time,” she explained. “There were too many turnovers in the games. We knew that it would be tough, but we exposed the young players in the team,” Reynolds also said. INEXPERIENCED PLAYERS “We took a set of inexperienced players and started off losing badly in Game One, but improved in the other two games. We had eight players in New Zealand who were not part of the World Championship team last year in Australia, so we are rebuilding for the future,” the head coach pointed out. Sunshine Girls captain, Malysha Kelly, says despite the losses the team showed determination. “Well, basically as Jamaicans, we are determined and willing. We lapsed in the games due to inexperience. Also, there is a new rule of not having a time out (that) affected us,” Kelly said. “The top three teams have professional leagues, so we need regular competitions, even in the Caribbean,” she noted. Jamaica will next challenge England in a three-match series away in November. “We will go back to training in the next two weeks in preparation for the England series, as it is important as that will affect our ranking,” the captain further said. The players who returned include Vangelee Williams, Malysha Kelly, Vanessa Williams, Abbeygail Lynton, Kerry-Ann Brown, Rebecca Robinson, Adean Thomas, Shantal Slater, Nicole Dixon, Shanice Beckford and Shamera Sterling.
FOCUS ON OTHER FACTORS With that debate done for the time being, perhaps the focus should turn to the other factors that influence Jamaica’s success in athletics. The US track scholarship has played a huge role in our nation’s advancement with many of our champions, from Herb McKenley to Veronica Campbell-Brown and Omar McLeod benefiting. Yet many good prospects have taken that route and disappeared. Eight of the boys and six of the girls who won Class One or open events at the ISSA GraceKennedy Boys and Girls Championships 2016 have gone off to scholarships in the US. Together, they won 17 individual events at Champs last year, and their departure is testimony to how valuable the US track and field scholarship still is. It’s probably time that the scholarship prospect be provided with more information on how to choose wisely. A central repository of information would really help to shed light on academic faculty and the athletic coaching staff and weather so the young ones could choose wisely. While some scholarship seekers might have been early bloomers athletically speaking, all including blue chip prospects would benefit from better information. Coach movement should be included because there are times when the student’s athlete finds that the coach who recruited them is long gone when they arrive in the US. By helping young prospects make better choices, this scholarship information centre would protect the promise of Jamaica’s future in track and field. Not everyone will be an Olympic champion, but all can seize the opportunities that do exist. Should it come to pass, It would be an important step forward. – Hubert Lawrence has made notes at track side since 1980. David Hunt, the editor and publisher of the popular Champs Preview, consistently urged the authorities to reduce load on student-athletes in track and field. He did so by showing the difference in Champs loading between those who fell by the wayside and those who became Olympic medallists. Accordingly, In 1992, he suggested that no athlete be allowed to do more than 3 events in total at Boys Champs with no more than 2 on the track. When ISSA cut the allowable load limit to 3 track events, he called it “a good start?”. He wrote, “No longer can top-class athletes be asked to do 6 events, plus relays, in an attempt to garner as many points as possible.” That was 23 years ago. Since then, Jamaica has won more medals at the Olympic Games and World Championships than it used to. The reduction of the load at Champs, improved coaching, injury management, and the emergence of stay-at-home post- high-school training programmes have probably all contributed to the success Jamaica enjoys today. David’s 1994 editorial has another striking passage. It reads, “The history of Boys’ Champs is replete with talented overburdened athletes, who failed to go on to further glory at the senior level. There may be other reasons for their failure, but the early abuse is a common factor.” This may be why there aren’t too many arguments voiced against the intent of the 2017 vote by ISSA to further restrict the range of events student-athletes can do at Champs. Most coaches simply wish they had more time to adjust their training programmes to the new regime. With Champs due on March 28, there’s no time to quarrel anymore.